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Boeuf bourguignon-- French beef stew in red wine.
We'’’re going to serve it with braised onions and mushrooms and a wine dark sauce.
It'’’s a perfectly delicious dish.
♪ ♪ Hello.
I'’’m Julia Child.
Welcome to The French Chef, and the first show on our series on French cooking.
We'’’re gonna make boeuf bourguignon-- beef stew in red wine.
And it'’’s a wonderful show to begin our series on, because it shows you so many useful things about French cooking: how to brown meat, how to braise onions, how to sauté mushrooms, how to make a wonderful sauce.
And you make a boeuf bourguignon just the way you make any other kind of a stew, like chicken coq au vin, you can make lamb this way or veal this way.
And now, here'’’s our beef.
And I'’’ve made quite a few beef stews lately, getting ready for this program, and I'’’ve tried several different cuts, some from the leg, called the top round and the bottom round, and from all the stews I'’’ve made, I find that I like chuck the best.
So these are various pieces of chuck.
This is called the chuck tender, and it comes from the shoulder blade, up here, and it makes an awfully nice stew, because the meat doesn'’’t get stringy.
And this is called the undercut of the chuck-- where it'’’s like the continuation of the ribs along here, where it gets up to your neck.
And here'’’s another piece of it.
This, as a...
Excuse me, this is a... called flanking meat, and that'’’s awfully good.
That'’’s sort of from the short part of the ribs of the chuck.
And you cut up the meat into pieces about like that.
We'’’re going to have... we'’’re going to serve this for six people, so we want to have three pounds of meat.
I usually count on one pound of boneless meat for... two to three people.
But if you have a good appetite, you want to have a little more than that.
And then, as you can make this stew way ahead of time, anything that'’’s left over is extremely good.
Now, we want to get our pan hot, and we'’’re gonna sauté it in this first until it'’’s brown, and then we'’’re gonna put it in this pot, in which we'’’re gonna cook it in the oven.
But before you sauté anything, you want to make sure that you have it good and brown... good and dry.
Well, I just take a whole lot of paper towels, like that, and just dry the meat off.
If you don'’’t have the meat dry, you can'’’t brown it, because it'’’s as though it were steaming-- there'’’s water on the bottom of the meat, and it just... it just steams rather than browns.
So you get it good and dry, like that.
Then we'’’re gonna sauté this in oil.
I usually use a light olive oil, which I get at my supermarket.
And we need just enough oil to keep the bottom of the pan nicely filmed with oil, and then you can add any more whenever you need to.
And then as soon as the oil is hot-- and that'’’s a very important point, too, '’’cause you can'’’t sauté anything in meat... in oil that isn'’’t hot.
It can'’’t be smoking and burning, but it just has to be hot enough so that it'’’s gonna brown the meat.
And you can tell it'’’s too hot if the oil begins to darken in color.
This'’’ll take about... oh, four or five minutes to brown.
And I'’’m not gonna crowd the pan, either.
That'’’s another extremely important thing, because if the pan gets crowded, then the meat... then the meat steams again.
I find these wooden spatulas awfully useful.
Just keep... keep moving it around so it won'’’t stick.
As soon as you get... as all of it'’’s covered with a little bit of the oil in the pan, then it doesn'’’t stick anymore.
And I'’’m gonna put a little bit more oil in.
You can'’’t really give proportions for this... because you just add the oil as you need it.
You can use peanut oil, which is perfectly good.
You want to be sure with your oil that you don'’’t use any that... when it gets hot, it has a bad odor.
Olive oil is a light... olive oil'’’s awfully good.
Peanut oil is good, too.
See, that'’’s beginning to brown.
You want to get it brown on all sides.
And if your heat gets too much, you can just turn it down.
I'’’m keeping it up on very high at this moment.
And then as soon as I think it'’’s beginning to... getting too hot, I'’’ll turn it down.
You just keep... turning it around, like that.
Now, if you'’’re doing chicken, you do it exactly the same way as if you'’’re doing a lamb.
Lamb stew is awfully good, and it'’’s not expensive.
You do it exactly the same way.
So while you'’’re watching me do this, remember you could do lamb or veal or chicken.
Coq au vin is just the same as boeuf bourguignon.
"Bourguignon" means Burgundy, and that'’’s where this dish was invented, in Burgundy, and they usually use Burgundy wine with it.
But you can use any kind of nice red wine, as you'’’ll see.
There, that'’’s just about browned enough.
Now, we'’’ll put this, as it'’’s browned, into the casserole.
I'’’m gonna heat up that casserole a bit.
That'’’s just... See, that didn'’’t take very long-- only about, oh... three or four minutes.
I want to turn the heat down a bit.
These are new tongs, and they stick a little bit.
Now, we have... in here, this nice... sort of brown bit here that'’’s left over from the... from the browning.
And this is part of your treasure of cooking.
It'’’s called a glaze, and we'’’re gonna deglaze it with our red wine.
We'’’re gonna use about three cups, or about two-thirds of the bottle.
And this is called deglazing, when you pour the wine in and you'’’re scraping up all this lovely brown coagulated juice, which gives color to your sauce, as well as has a lot of flavor in it.
Now we just pour that in, And then we'’’re gonna add some beef stock to it.
We want just enough liquid so that the meat is barely covered.
It'’’s called à fleur in France.
It means the meat looks like little flowers.
That'’’s just about two cups of stock in there.
And I'’’m... You can use a... What'’’s very nice, as always, is a homemade beef stock.
But if you don'’’t have that, you can use a... you can use canned beef bouillon, which is very good, too.
Don'’’t use canned consommé, because that tends to be a little bit sweet.
Now, while that'’’s coming to the boil.
we'’’re gonna add the rest of our flavorings here.
We'’’re gonna put in a little bit of tomato paste.
Oh, about a tablespoon.
About like that.
And then we'’’re gonna put in some bay leaf... thyme-- this is first-- about half a teaspoonful.
And then a bay leaf.
There'’’s a difference of taste between French bay leaves and American bay leaves, so if you want it to taste very French, you buy what they call imported bay leaves.
You can get them at almost any supermarket.
Then, '’’cause this is a bourguignon, we have garlic.
So here'’’s a garlic press.
You just put the whole garlic in there and go... (grunts) That'’’s awfully easy, then you don'’’t get it over your hands.
And now our stew is just coming to the simmer here.
We want to give it a little taste to see whether we'’’ve... whether we'’’ve got enough salt in it.
You want to be very careful not to oversalt at this point, because the sauce is gonna reduce.
Doesn'’’t taste good now at all, because the wine is raw.
It needs just a little bit of salt.
I'’’ll put in, oh, about a half teaspoon there.
Now that'’’s at the simmer... and I'’’m gonna put it in the oven.
Now, this is gonna go in a 325 oven, and it should cook very, very slowly, just at the bare simmer.
And once it'’’s in, except for checking the oven to make sure that it isn'’’t bubbling and boiling, you don'’’t have to look at it anymore.
Beef takes about three to four hours to cook, depending on the cut and the tenderness.
Lamb takes about two hours, and chicken only 30 minutes.
And they'’’re all done the same way.
And now, while that'’’s cooking, we'’’re gonna do the braised onions that go with this.
You see, with this kind of a stew, you can do so much ahead of time.
If you can get the beef all done ahead of time and... the onions, and then all you have to do at the end is just the final fixing.
Now, these braised onions are something that you can do...
They'’’re awfully good served with a stew, or you can serve them just as a plain vegetable with... just parsley on them.
Or you can cream them.
But this is one of the best ways of cooking them.
Now, to peel onions the easy way-- I'’’ve got a whole bunch of these peeled, but I just wanted to show you how you did it, quickly.
We'’’ll say that this is a pan of boiling water.
You just take all your onions, put them in the water, and wait till the water comes back to the boil again, and then leave them for about 20 seconds just to loosen the skin, take them out, then peel them.
And when you peel them, we want to cook these whole, so we want to leave just as much of... the onion together as possible.
Now, you see how that skin slips off.
And now, because we want them to stay whole, you'’’ve got your root end here, and you take your little knife and you just pierce a little hole in that.
See how quickly that goes.
But be careful that you just shave off either end, like that.
Now poke your little hole in.
Then... there are peeled onions, and we'’’re gonna cook them in a pan, like that.
You want to have a pan that will just hold them.
You don'’’t want them piled on top of each other.
Then we put in a little bit of water.
So... till they'’’re about half-covered.
And we want some butter.
Butter adds flavor to them.
So we want about a tablespoon of butter, like that.
And some salt.
And then we want to bring them just to the simmer on top of the stove.
And then you cover them.
I don'’’t have a cover-- I'’’ll use this and pretend we have one.
You cover them and you keep them in a very, very slow simmer for about 25 minutes, until they'’’re tender.
Now, as we don'’’t have 25 minutes, I'’’ve got some that have already been cooked.
I cooked these last night, so you can do this all ahead of time.
And they'’’re done when they'’’re soft.
But as you see, they'’’ve kept their shape.
And when they'’’re done, then you just put them aside, and... you can do them the night before if you want.
Now we'’’re gonna do the mushrooms.
Now... this is the... this is the way you always sauté mushrooms if they'’’re to be sautéed.
But first I want to show you about washing them, because that'’’s important, too.
Now, we'’’ve got these.
Here are two mushrooms-- these are both fresh ones.
But this one is a little bit fresher than that one, and you can tell because the stem is attached to the cap, like that.
This one is still fresh.
If it were not fresh at all, the cap would have spread way out, but it still has that nice curl, so you know it is fresh.
And you want to trim a little bit of the stem off if necessary-- most American mushrooms don'’’t have any dirt on the end of them.
These are nice and clean, but you always want to wash them, '’’cause there may be a little sand.
And if this cap and stem are... are open this way, you also want to take the stem out, like that.
With this one, you don'’’t have to.
Then you wash '’’em.
You dump them in the water, like that.
I'’’ll move this over here.
And you move... lift them up with your hands, and any sand that'’’s in them will drop down to the very bottom.
Then, when they'’’re all washed, you drain them by lifting them like that.
If you took the water and poured the mushrooms into the sieve, of course, all the sand would fall back on them again.
Then, before you do anything more about the mushrooms, and particularly if you'’’re going to sauté them, they'’’ve got to be absolutely dry.
So you take a nice, clean towel, and you dry them off.
'’’Cause if they'’’re wet, they'’’re not gonna brown.
What with electric washing machines and everything, you don'’’t have to be upset about using towels for things like this.
Now, for cutting them, we, in this stew, we don'’’t want sliced mushrooms, we want quartered mushrooms.
If they'’’re sliced, they disappear a little bit too much.
So, to quarter them, you just take the cap and do like that.
And then we want the stem to look like the cap, so that we just cut it on the bias, like that.
There, I'’’ll do another one so you'’’ll remember.
You just cut like that.
If you have a great big mushroom, You might want to make three cuts, like that, so they'’’ll all be about the same size.
And then your stem is cut on the bias.
Now our mushrooms are all ready, and we'’’re going to sauté them.
I'’’m going to use... Well, wait a minute.
I'’’ll get rid of this.
I'’’m going to use one of these patent no-stick pans.
I like them very much, '’’cause nothing sticks on them, just as they say, and I use it like an ordinary pan, with oil in it and butter.
And these are mushrooms, as to what they always say, "sautéed in butter."
But they aren'’’t actually sautéed in butter, they'’’re sautéed in butter and oil.
'’’Cause if you use just butter, your butter'’’s gonna burn, and the mushrooms will taste awful, because burned butter doesn'’’t taste well.
So the oil fortifies the butter a little bit.
In other words, it is able to heat up a little hotter.
Now, we have to wait until the butter is hot enough.
And you can always tell how hot it is by looking at the butter foam.
So that'’’s a very easy way of telling.
And when it'’’s foaming up like this, it means that it isn'’’t hot enough.
And as soon as the foam begins to subside, the butter is hot, and you can then sauté.
It always takes a little while.
You just have to be patient and wait.
But you'’’ve looked at that butter foam now.
See, it'’’s still foaming, so you just still have to wait.
But if you try to sauté something in butter that isn'’’t hot enough, It just isn'’’t...
They aren'’’t, just aren'’’t gonna brown.
So you have to be a little bit patient if you want success.
Now that butter'’’s hot enough, the foam has gone down, so in go the mushrooms.
I think I'’’ll have room for them all.
Yeah, I do.
Well... Well, I'’’ll let them sit for a while over good, hot heat.
And what'’’s nice about this pan, you can just shake them, like that.
And that takes about two or three minutes.
We'’’ll just let '’’em sit for a minute, and then keep shaking them.
If you wanted to sauté them until they were cooked through, it would take about five or six minutes.
And this, we'’’re just sautéing them a little bit so that they'’’ll take on flavor.
They always have...
If you put them right into the stew raw, they just wouldn'’’t have the right taste.
So we just have to sit and wait until they'’’re done.
Now, if you...
This is about all that you can put in this size a pan.
If you had twice this much, you'’’d have to do two sets of them.
Because if you put more than this in, they'’’d start steaming, and then the juice would come out.
And a properly sautéed mushroom doesn'’’t have any juice.
Those are just very, very lightly browned.
And we can now set them aside.
You see, these you can do ahead of time.
So, if you were cooking the stew in the morning, or even the night before, you could have your mushrooms ready and your onions ready.
And now our stew has cooked long enough, so we'’’re gonna get it out of the oven.
Now, this stew is one that I'’’ve had in the oven for about three hours, and it'’’s just about ready.
Now, this other one that we had in the oven will take three hours more, so we'’’ll just have to wait.
Now comes the very important and not difficult thing about making the sauce.
And what we'’’re gonna do here is just to...
The easiest way to degrease the sauce and to give it its finer final flavoring is just to pour the whole thing into a sauce pan.
Which we'’’ll do here.
I always find a towel awfully useful to have hung around me.
Then I'’’ll let the sauce drain out.
And then we simply put the stew back into the casserole.
Now, we should have about two and a half to three cups of sauce here, which we do, just about.
And what we do now is the final flavoring of it.
We also want to take off any fat which has accumulated.
If you made this a day or two ahead of time, you could put it all in the icebox, And then the fat would come up to the surface, and you'’’d scrape it off.
In this case, we'’’re just going to skim it off the top.
Unless you'’’re on one of those fat-free diets, you want to leave a little bit in, because it gives a very good flavor.
Now we'’’re gonna taste it.
And it should be just exactly right at this point.
Or, if it isn'’’t, we'’’re gonna make it so.
That'’’s very good.
I think it needs a little more salt, and it needs some pepper.
You don'’’t usually put the pepper into a sauce until just at the end, because pepper sometimes can get a little bit bitter.
But this hasn'’’t had any, so this is the pepper going in now.
Now we'’’ll just taste it again to be sure.
Always remember to taste things, because you can spend quite a bit of time, and then forget to taste, and find that it isn'’’t just right.
If you felt that it didn'’’t have enough garlic, you could put some in now.
Or you could put in a little more tomato paste or a little more thyme.
In this case, we fortunately find it just right.
Now, for the thickening of it.
And this is a very simple trick for thickening called a beurre manié, or a butter and flour paste.
We have about... say, about three cups of sauce here, so we want one tablespoon of flour per cup of sauce.
And that'’’ll give it just enough thickening.
And we just put the flour into anything handy, like a little bowl, and then have softened butter... like that.
And then we work the butter and the flour together.
And it makes what is called a paste, and it'’’s a very quick thickening.
It'’’s not what you'’’d call a haute cuisine thickening, but it'’’s what you always use for a stew like this.
Very, very typical of either the boeuf bourguignon or the coq au vin.
There, now that'’’s in a paste.
And we'’’re gonna take the sauce off the simmer.
We'’’ll put it on a burner which isn'’’t going and just put this flour paste in and beat it up.
These wire whips are awfully useful.
Then we put it over heat again.
We want it to bring to the boil.
It just needs to boil for about a second.
And while that'’’s coming to the boil, we put our braised onions in.
And our sautéed mushrooms.
Now, that'’’s boiled, and you can see it stick.
What we want it to do is just to be thick enough to enrobe the beef.
And then... there we are.
Now, if you want to do this ahead of time, you do it right to this point.
And then, when it'’’s cool, you can cover it and refrigerate it.
Be sure never to cover anything when it'’’s hot.
Because it may sour.
That often happens.
You make a lovely chicken stew and then cover it up, and it turns sour, and it'’’s just '’’cause you covered it before it'’’s cold.
But we'’’re gonna serve this right away, so you want to heat it up just a little bit.
'’’Cause you want the flavor of the onions and the beef to all blend themselves with the stew.
That'’’s going a little too hot, so I'’’ll put it at the side.
About two or three minutes.
And if you had it in the icebox, you heat it up very slowly, and baste the meat with the sauce.
And then... And then you cover it and simmer it very slowly for about two or three minutes, until everything is tender and hot through.
So we'’’ll pretend we'’’re doing that.
You see that the wonderful thing about this, so you say, "Oh, I can'’’t do anything that takes four hours to cook, it'’’s impossible."
But you see, you don'’’t have to even look at it once it'’’s in the oven.
Once you'’’ve got the preliminaries done, you can put it all together, put it away.
Or you can cook it the next time if... You can cook it the next day if you want.
But it'’’s just a lovely stew, and it'’’s really...
It'’’s a peasant dish, and peasants don'’’t... do simple, hearty cooking.
And that'’’s just what this is.
Well, now, this is ready to serve... right now.
This is going to be a very nice dinner that we have.
We have our boeuf bourguignon, and we have what the French usually always serve with it, which are boiled potatoes with parsley on them, and a very nice green salad of romaine.
And as always, the usual French bread.
You'’’re gonna see French bread on all these meals, '’’cause the French always have bread at all of them.
And also, we have a red wine.
This is the same wine that we used for the cooking.
It'’’s a domestic mountain red.
It'’’s a very nice wine.
Or, if you have lots of money, you can buy a fine Burgundy.
So, with a beef stew like this, you don'’’t use one of the terribly expensive Burgundies.
You use a young, full-bodied wine.
Because if you had a very old, delicate wine, it would...
The stew, being very robust, would kill the wine.
And when you'’’re serving wine, you want to think of how it goes with the meal.
Or how... say, how the beef and the wine marry.
'’’Cause if this is robust, the wine must be rather robust.
Now, next time... we'’’re going to do French onion soup gratiné.
It'’’s one of the really great French soups.
And it'’’s fun to make and wonderful to eat.
And I hope that you will be with us.
And I hope, also, that you feel that you can make a good stew after having seen this one.
As you remember, you can use lamb, chicken, veal, as well as beef.
And it'’’s all done exactly the same time... same way.
It'’’s only the cooking time that varies.
This took two or three hours.
Chicken takes only about 30 minutes.
And you remember, now, how to sauté mushrooms.
Get the butter hot, remember how the foam is supposed to look.
And don'’’t crowd the pan.
Don'’’t crowd the pan, either, when you'’’re making a beef... when you'’’re sautéing beef, or you won'’’t get it brown.
This is Julia Child.
Welcome to The French Chef, and see you next time.
Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org ♪ ♪ ANNOUNCER: Julia Child is coauthor of the book Mastering the Art of French Cooking.
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This has been a WGBH videotape production.